(Tutorials) What a mesh!

July 25, 2010

Setup a wireless mesh network with ubuntu laptops and olsrd

Setting up a wireless mesh network using ubuntu and olsrd.

Literature: http://www.viafrica.org/html/wireless.pdf
For viafrica.org I studied the possibility of setting up a wireless mesh network using ubuntu.

First some background on wireless networking.

You can have three different types of wireless layouts (“topologies”):

  • a point to point network. Ideal when a fixed site does not have internet but
    can “see” a side which has. The site with a dedicated internet connection
    typically has a wireless Access Point (AP) configured. such an AP is usually
    created using a dedicated device (like a linksys modem). This AP operates in
    Master mode (sometimes called infrastructure mode). The site with no internet
    normally has a wireless client which operates in Managed mode (sometimes called
    client mode) and connects to the AP.
  • a point to multipoint network. This is the most commonly used. Multiple clients
    (like laptops) operate in Managed mode to access a single AP (which operates in
    Master mode). The clients can not communicate directly which each other,
    traffic is always routed via the AP.
  • a multipoint to multipoint network, also called a mesh or ad-hoc network. To
    create a mesh network all wireless nodes (like laptops) need to be put in
    ad-hoc mode. In ad-hoc mode the nodes can communicate directly with each
    other. This is the network I’ll explain in more detail.

The mesh nodes

All nodes in a mesh network need a fixed IP-address. To use DHCP (dynamically
assign IP-addresses) is not practical. A solution would be to use IPv6 only and
make use of the IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration. With this technique
a unique IPv6-address is constructed using the MAC-address (MAC = Media Access
Control, a unique number for, in this case, each wireless card).
But for now we use fixed static IPv4 addresses.

I experimented with three PC’s:

  • samsung laptop with:
    • lucid desktop
    • hostname: sammie
    • eth0 (RJ-45) connection to the Internet (NATted by my linksys modem),
      IP-address: 192.168.5.100
    • atheros wireless card, will be configured with fixed IP-address 192.168.32.41
    • madwifi wireless driver (compiled from source)
  • asus eeePC 901 with:
    • lucid desktop
    • hostname: eeetje
    • a Ralink RT2860 wireless card, will be configured with fixed IP-address
      192.168.32.42 This card is quite famous:
      https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/linux/+bug/351362 To set this card
      in ad-hoc mode was quite buggy, sometimes a command issued had effect and
      sometimes it did not (…). However, once you get the card configured it stays
      stable.
    • rt2860sta driver
  • asus eee box pc with:
    • lucid server
    • hostname: eeebox
    • atheros wireless card, will be configured with fixed IP-address 192.168.32.43
    • ath9k driver

Configuring the nodes

Time to configure, starting with the samsung PC:
Login and be root. The lucid desktop network-manager is crap, stop it.

# /etc/init.d/network-manager stop

bring up the wireless interface

# ifconfig wlan0 up

Give the wireless adapter a network name (ESSID: Extended Service Set IDentifier),
Set the mode to “ad-hoc”
set the communication channel to 10
set RTS (“Request to Send”) to 250.
Because all nodes use the same channel you will have collisions on
the network. RTS can solve this a bit by negotiating if the line is clear.
(RTS uses “handshaking” for this).
Also allow fragmentation of packages
so to config the wireless adapter give the command:

# iwconfig wlan0 essid mesh mode ad-hoc channel 10 rts 250 frag 256

now it’s time to give the interface a IP-address

# ifconfig wlan0 192.168.32.41

the samsung laptop will act as a router to the Internet for the two eee pc’s
(eth0 is connected to the Internet).
Therefore issue:

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Because my laptop is already “NATted” by my linksys modem for my internet connection
on eth0, also route packets from 192.168.32.0 through NAT on eth0.

# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

The result:

# iwconfig wlan0
wlan0 IEEE 802.11bg ESSID:"mesh"
Mode:Ad-Hoc Frequency:2.457 GHz Cell: 9E:87:AA:A7:0E:A0
Tx-Power=20 dBm
Retry long limit:7 RTS thr=250 B Fragment thr=256 B
Encryption key:off
Power Management:off

The Cell-value is constructed using the ESSID. Both the Cell-value and the ESSID must be the same
on the other nodes.

Now configure the asus eee PC 901:
the lucid desktop network-manager is still crap, stop it.

# /etc/init.d/network-manager stop

we do not need interface eth0 (RJ-45)

# ifconfig eth0 down

we do need our wireless interface

# ifconfig wlan0 up

If the device has a nickname remove it (the rt2860sta driver supports nicknames for the adapter)

# iwconfig wlan0 essid mesh nick "" mode ad-hoc channel 10 rts 250 frag 256
# ifconfig wlan0 192.168.32.42

configure your resolver. This was not needed on the samsung laptop because the resolver config
is not changed while eth0 is up. On the asus PC’s we do not use interface eth0.

# echo "nameserver 217.149.192.6" >> /etc/resolv.conf
# echo "nameserver 217.149.196.6" >> /etc/resolv.conf

As I said earlier the Ralink RT2860 wireless card is quite buggy to configure in ad-hoc mode.
Sometimes the above command iwconfig did not work but after hitting it again it did (…).
And sometimes you do not get the right Cell value. An “iwlist scan” did help me once (don’t
ask me why…).
Once configured the situation is stable.

I did the same for the eeebox pc (which does not have a network-manager because it’s a server install).

Use a routing daemon: olsrd

All three PC’s can now ping each other but we need “routing” to get the asus pc’s connected to
the internet.
For a few PC’s it is doable to edit the routing table by hand but if your network has a few more PC’s, and
even worse, PC’s come and go quite often, you want a routing daemon.
Especially for mesh networks is olsrd (optimized link state routing daemon) developed.
This daemon needs to run on every node and constantly polls it’s neighbours about
their status. Depending on the answers the network topology is reflected in the routing table.
To install on ubuntu just type:

# sudo apt-get install olsrd

The config file is /etc/olsrd/olsrd.conf. Copy this file to /etc (/etc/olsrd.conf is the default config file used by olsrd).
Most important in the config file is the section where you set your interface and the broadcast-address.
You need to set the broadcast-address the same on all mesh-nodes and 255.255.255.255 is used as a convention:
The olsrd.conf for both the asus eee PC’s contains:

Interface "wlan0"
{
Ip4Broadcast 255.255.255.255
}

The samsung laptop is a bit special because it’s a gateway to the internet for the asus PC’s.
To announce the fact it is a gateway to the other nodes is best done using a dedicated plugin.
To install olsrd plugins just type:

# sudo apt-get install olsrd-plugins

The plugin to annouce a node is a gateway is called olsrd_dyn_gw.so.0.4 and put in the config:

LoadPlugin "olsrd_dyn_gw.so.0.4"
{
# how often to check for Internet connectivity
# defaults to 5 secs
PlParam "Interval" "60"
PlParam "Ping" "217.149.194.145"
PlParam "Ping" "85.223.50.224"
}

You can also configure a gateway using HNA-syntax (Host and Network Association) but this method is now obsolete. HNA did not have capabilities to check if a host is really a gateway (for instance, if the internet connectivity is
suddenly gone the hosts keeps announcing it knows the way to the outside world).
This way you can create “black holes”. When using the plugin you avoid this by checking if the node still has
an internet connection (using ping to the configured IP-addresses) and make the proper announcements..

Once properly configured you can fire up olsrd by issuing (as root):

# olsrd -d 2

The option -d 2 puts the daemon in debug mode and it stays attached to your terminal so you can view the output. Once satisfied you can omit debug mode ans olsrd.
With the three nodes the debug output on, for instance the asus eee PC, will be:

*** olsr.org - 0.5.6-r7 (2009-11-24 03:49:26 on rothera) *** --- 20:48:44.786334 ---------------------------------------------------- LINKS IP address hyst LQ ETX 192.168.32.42 0.000 0.976/0.945 1.084 192.168.32.41 0.000 0.965/0.945 1.097 --- 20:48:44.786411 ----------------------- TWO-HOP NEIGHBORS IP addr (2-hop) IP addr (1-hop) Total cost 192.168.32.42 192.168.32.41 2.097 192.168.32.41 192.168.32.42 2.084 --- 20:48:44.786489 ------------------------------------------------- TOPOLOGY Source IP addr Dest IP addr LQ ETX 192.168.32.41 192.168.32.42 1.000/1.000 1.000 192.168.32.41 192.168.32.43 0.945/0.949 1.115 192.168.32.42 192.168.32.41 1.000/1.000 1.000 192.168.32.42 192.168.32.43 0.945/0.965 1.097 192.168.32.43 192.168.32.41 0.949/0.937 1.124 192.168.32.43 192.168.32.42 0.976/0.945 1.084

This is the output on 192.168.32.43
Clear is we know two other IP-addresses: 192.168.32.42 and 192.168.32.41
The hop to both IP-‘s use 1 hop.
The topology gives all 6 possible routes between the 3 nodes (3!).
The Link Quality (LQ) is for all links around 1.

The routing table before olsrd is started:

root@eeebox:~# netstat -rn Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 br0 192.168.32.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 wlan0 0.0.0.0 192.168.5.11 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 br0

The routing table when all nodes have olsrd running:

root@eeebox:~# netstat -rn Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface 192.168.32.41 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 wlan0 192.168.32.42 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 wlan0 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 br0 192.168.32.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 wlan0 0.0.0.0 192.168.32.41 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 wlan0 0.0.0.0 192.168.5.11 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 br0

Especially note the default gateway (to the samsung laptop (192.168.32.41)) is added.
A bit weird we have two default gateways now: the eeebox (192.168.32.43) also has a
RJ-45 connection to the linksys.
The route over wlan0 is surprisingly preferred (still has to investigate this).

A very neat plugin for olsrd is olsrd_dot_draw.so.0.3. This plugin starts a daemon on a port
you choose and outputs a “dot graph” (more info on the dot program see http://www.graphviz.org/) of the
current wireless topology.
Put in /etc/olsrd.conf:

LoadPlugin "olsrd_dot_draw.so.0.3"
{
PlParam "accept" "127.0.0.1"
PlParam "port" "2004"
}

This will start listening on localhost, port 2004.
A telnet to this port gives:

sammie:~$ telnet localhost 2004 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. digraph topology { "192.168.32.41" -> "192.168.32.42"[label="1.000", style=solid]; "192.168.32.41"[shape=box]; "192.168.32.41" -> "192.168.32.43"[label="1.000", style=solid]; "192.168.32.41"[shape=box]; "192.168.32.41" -> "192.168.32.42"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.41" -> "192.168.32.43"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.42" -> "192.168.32.41"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.42" -> "192.168.32.43"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.43" -> "192.168.32.41"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.43" -> "192.168.32.42"[label="1.000"]; "192.168.32.41" -> "0.0.0.0/0"[label="HNA"]; "0.0.0.0/0"[shape=diamond]; } Connection closed by foreign host.

Copy the digraph output and save in topology.dot
Now use the dot program to graph this:

# dot -otopology.png -Tpng topology.dot

And voila: a real visualization of your mesh network topology!

Testing the mesh

Now the really important part: time to test the mesh. I take the eeePC (192.168.32.42) outside and see what happens.
The first node which could not be seen any more was the samsung laptop (192.168.32.41, the gateway…):

IP address hyst LQ ETX 192.168.32.41 0.000 0.698/0.039 INFINITE 192.168.32.43 0.000 0.871/0.110 10.461 --- 20:31:07.295032 ----------------------- TWO-HOP NEIGHBORS IP addr (2-hop) IP addr (1-hop) Total cost 192.168.32.43 192.168.32.41 INFINITE 192.168.32.41 192.168.32.43 11.465 --- 20:31:07.295165 ------------------------------------------------- TOPOLOGY Source IP addr Dest IP addr LQ ETX 192.168.32.41 192.168.32.43 1.000/1.000 1.000 192.168.32.42 192.168.32.43 0.871/0.110 10.461 192.168.32.43 192.168.32.41 1.000/1.000 1.000 192.168.32.43 192.168.32.42 0.102/0.251 39.078

Note the hop from .42 to .41 is gone and 192.168.32.41 has an ETX value of
“INFINITE”, which means that node is out of sight (unreachable).
But thanks to the mesh and olsrd we still have the eeebox pc (192.168.32.43) which routes us to the internet:

root@eeetje:~# traceroute -I 217.149.194.145 traceroute to 217.149.194.145 (217.149.194.145), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets 1 192.168.32.43 (192.168.32.43) 38.242 ms 71.653 ms * 2 * * * 3 * * * 4 * * * 5 * * * 6 * 10.254.3.22 (10.254.3.22) 9.889 ms 42.310 ms 7 * * * 8 * * * 9 * * * 10 * * * 11 * * * 12 colo.all-stars.nl (217.149.194.145) 200.526 ms 360.912 ms 393.447 ms root@eeetje:~# ip route get !$ ip route get 217.149.194.145 217.149.194.145 via 192.168.32.43 dev wlan0 src 192.168.32.42 cache mtu 1500 advmss 1460 hoplimit 64 root@eeetje:~#

So it works! Quite nice actually 🙂

Some notes about a mesh network:

  • performance can be a problem due to routing overhead and collisions. It’s clear that more
    nodes add to this problem.
  • a mesh network can easily become quite complex and can make troubleshooting more difficult.
    The complexity and variety of a mesh network can also make security hazardous.

Troubleshooting:

Wireless networking used to be crap, still is and probably will never improve much.

  • sometimes it helps to enter the same command with iwconfig twice (…)
    Especially with the Ralink wireless card.
  • sometimes it helps to bring wlan0 down and up again:

    root@eeebox:~# ifconfig wlan0 down
    root@eeebox:~# ifconfig wlan0 up

    Not sure yet but maybe has something to do with cached routing information (?)

  • Sometimes you do not get the right Cell value. An “iwlist scan” did help me once (don’t
    ask me why…).

Extending the mesh with a Linksys WAP54G

The WAP54G uses not much power (max 6 Watt) and can be used to extend our mesh.
The idea is to put it somewhere strategic in the mesh, may be even solar powered!

To get it to run olsr you need to put the “freifunk firmware” (see: http://wiki.freifunk.net/Freifunk_Firmware_%28English%29#WAP54G) on it.
My WAP54G is version 3.1 (with firmware 3.05, factory defaults).
What I did was:

  • Connect a laptop to the LAN-poort in the same network (192.168.1.0/24).
  • Go to http://192.168.1.245/fw-conf.asp and set “Downgrade Header” to “off”. This way you can download different firmware.
  • Download the latest freifunk firmware from http://download.berlin.freifunk.net/ipkg/_trx/.
    I got openwrt-freifunk-1.7.0-en.trx (I don’t know if the openwrt-freifunk-1.7.0-en-full.trx will fit). But the not full version has olsrd and you can always install more packages using “ipkg”.
  • Via the OLSR menu: set the IP4 broadcast to 255.255.255.255.
  • Via the wireless menu” set a fixed wireless IP-address with 192.168.32.41 as the gateway (note: you should NOT use 192.168.0.0/16 IP-address for olsrd with freifunk firmware but I had no problems using 192.168.32.4X.). Furthermore set all the other values on the wireless-page: essid = mesh, mode = ad-hoc, channel = 10, RTS = 250, frag = 256.
  • Via the LAN menu: don’t set a LAN default route (do NOT unset the IP-address or you can not connect anymore…!).
  • Via the WAN-interface: disable the WAN interface (we use wireless for this :)).
  • Choose “Restart”

That should do it. Login with ssh (username root, default password is admin (change this)) and see with
ps ax | grep olsrd” if olsrd is running.

Now generate a new dot file (remember the telnet localhost localhost 2004 on host sammie?) and we start to have quite a mesh…:) :

(I put the gateway announces from sammie (192.168.32.41) in red).

FYI: with ipkg-list you can see what packages are available:

alsa-lib - This is the library package for alsa, needed by some userspace programs. alsa-utils - ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) utilities bluez-hcidump - Bluetooth packet analyzer bluez-libs - Bluetooth library bluez-utils - Bluetooth utilities busybox-awk - Busybox awk,expr commands busybox-coreutils - Busybox coreutils missing: cal, chgrp, chown, cmp, dirname, busybox-crontab - Busybox crontab command busybox-nc - Busybox nc (netcat) command busybox-netstat - Busybox netstat command busybox-nfsmount - Busybox mount command with NFS busybox-ping6 - Busybox ping6 command busybox-telnet - Busybox telnet command busybox-tftp - Busybox tftp command cipe-tap - Crypto IP Encapsulation (Tun version) cipe-tun - Crypto IP Encapsulation (Tap version) conntrack - Shows current internet connection activities in an overwiew. dbus - Simple interprocess messaging system (daemon) dropbear - Lightweight SSH client and server system empcd - EMPCd can control the MPD fakepop - POP3 server which delivers the same message to everyone fftrace - A traceroute optimized of OLSR mesh networks flite - Text-to-speech for embedded systems freifunk-batman - B.A.T.M.A.N. (v0.2) suite for the FreifunkFirmware (FFF) freifunk-berlin-mapaddon - Provides the old geopostions for the berlin mesh map freifunk-bluetooth-de - Package for adding bluetooth dongle e.g. to wl500gP freifunk-bluetooth-en - Package for adding bluetooth dongle e.g. to wl500gP freifunk-dhcpsplash-de - DHCP-based captive portal (defaults from openwireless.ch) freifunk-dhcpsplash-en - DHCP-based captive portal (defaults from openwireless.ch) freifunk-dhcpsplash-pt - DHCP-based captive portal (defaults from openwireless.ch) freifunk-dnsmasq - Provides customizations for freifunk webadmin freifunk-dyndns-de - GUI for DynDNS freifunk-dyndns-en - GUI for DynDNS freifunk-dyndns-fr - GUI for DynDNS freifunk-gateway-de - Internet gateway plugin for restricting the access to the freifunk-gateway-en - Internet gateway plugin for restricting the access to the freifunk-gateway-es - Internet gateway plugin for restricting the access to the freifunk-gateway-fr - Internet gateway plugin for restricting the access to the freifunk-iptables-missing - Missing iptables modules available in the original OpenWrt build. freifunk-ipv6 - Package to run a parallel IPv6 instance of olsrd freifunk-map-de - Map tool for freifunk firmware based on google maps freifunk-map-en - Map tool for freifunk firmware based on google maps freifunk-map-pt - Map tool for freifunk firmware based on google maps freifunk-mtdkill - Call up mtd and kill init on return. (Note: Busybox freifunk-netperf-de - Public Web-UI for netperf measurements. freifunk-netperf-en - Public Web-UI for netperf measurements. freifunk-netperf-fr - Public Web-UI for netperf measurements. freifunk-nfsmount-de - This package can be used for NFS mounts. It will install freifunk-nfsmount-en - This package can be used for NFS mounts. It will install freifunk-nfsmount-es - This package can be used for NFS mounts. It will install freifunk-nfsmount-fr - This package can be used for NFS mounts. It will install freifunk-nvbackup-de - Backup-script to store local files/folders gzipped in nvram and restore after firmware-update freifunk-olsr-viz-de - Visualization of OLSR Topology. freifunk-olsr-viz-en - Visualization of OLSR Topology. freifunk-olsr-viz-pt - Visualization of OLSR Topology. freifunk-olsrd-libs - OLSR mesh networking daemon additonal libraries freifunk-olsrd-old-libs - OLSR mesh networking daemon additonal libraries freifunk-olsrd-old - OLSR mesh networking daemon for WRT54g for Freifunk.net freifunk-olsrd - OLSR mesh networking daemon for WRT54g for Freifunk.net freifunk-openvpn-de - Provides a GUI for OpenVPN freifunk-openvpn-easyrsa-de - Provides a GUI for generating OpenVPN X.509 keys freifunk-openvpn-easyrsa-en - Provides a GUI for generating OpenVPN X.509 keys freifunk-openvpn-en - Provides a GUI for OpenVPN freifunk-openvpn-nossl-de - Provides a GUI for OpenVPN freifunk-openvpn-nossl-en - Provides a GUI for OpenVPN freifunk-openwrt-compat - Some OpenWRT components are removed from the freifunk freifunk-portfw-de - Provides Port Forwarding in Freifunk WebUI freifunk-portfw-en - Provides Port Forwarding in Freifunk WebUI freifunk-portfw-fr - Provides Port Forwarding in Freifunk WebUI freifunk-pppoecd-de - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet freifunk-pppoecd-en - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet freifunk-pppoecd-es - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet freifunk-pppoecd-fr - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet freifunk-pppoecd-it - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet freifunk-pubpack-ca - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-de - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-en - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-es - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-fr - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-it - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-pl - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-pubpack-pt - This package can be used to publish own content freifunk-qos-scripts-de - A simple administration interface for the openwrt qos-script package freifunk-qos-scripts-en - A simple administration interface for the openwrt qos-script package freifunk-radio - This package installs the necessary software and a start freifunk-rdate - Provides customizations to set system time freifunk-rdate - Provides customizations to set system time freifunk-recommended-ca - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-de - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-en - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-es - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-fr - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-it - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-pl - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-recommended-pt - This dummy package installs recommended software freifunk-sdcard - Add the necessary kernel modules to drive freifunk-sdinit - Additional tools to setup an sd/mmc card. Provides freifunk-secureadmin-de - HTTPS for administrative tasks freifunk-secureadmin-en - HTTPS for administrative tasks freifunk-secureadmin-fr - HTTPS for administrative tasks freifunk-secureadmin-pt - HTTPS for administrative tasks freifunk-setbssid - Provides cgi-bin for setbssiding binary files with a browser freifunk-statistics-de-le - Statistics package based on Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting freifunk-statistics-de - Statistics package based on Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting. freifunk-statistics-en - Statistics package based on Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting. freifunk-statistics-es - Statistics package based on Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting. freifunk-statistics-fr - Statistics package based on Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting. freifunk-tcpdump - Network traffic monitoring. This version freifunk-topology-de - Shows the network topology of the neighborhood in the public webinterface freifunk-upload - Provides cgi-bin for uploading binary files with a browser freifunk-usbmobile - Installs necessary drivers for an usb device (e.g. mobile telephone) freifunk-usbstick - Installs necessary drivers for an usb stick freifunk-webadmin-0xff - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-ca - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-ch - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-de - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-en - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-es - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-ffgraz - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-fr - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-hsh - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-it - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-jawug - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-ninux - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-pl - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-psf - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-pt - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-wlon - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webadmin-wse - Web UI for freifunk. Do not use standalone. This ipk freifunk-webif - Installs the webif variant from JCollake aka X-Win on Freifunk Minimal freifunk-zapp-de - Shell script to check for filesharing on a freifunk-zapp-en - Shell script to check for filesharing on a gphoto2 - Gphoto Digital Camera Control horst - Provides highly optimized radio scanning hostapd-mini - This package contains a minimal IEEE 802.1x/WPA/EAP/RADIUS Authenticator hostapd-utils - This package contains a command line utility to control the hostapd - This package contains a full featured IEEE 802.1x/WPA/EAP/RADIUS icecast - A streaming media server for Ogg/Vorbis and MP3 audio streams id3lib - An ID3v1/ID3v2 tag manipulation library inadyn - DynDNS client ip6tables - The netfilter firewalling software for IPv6 ip - iproute2 stuff iptables-extra - Other extra Iptables extensions (meta-package) iptables-mod-conntrack - Iptables (IPv4) extensions for connection tracking iptables-mod-extra - Other extra Iptables (IPv4) extensions iptables-mod-filter - Iptables (IPv4) extension for packet content inspection iptables-mod-imq - Iptables (IPv4) extensions for Intermediate Queuing Device QoS-support iptables-mod-ipopt - Iptables (IPv4) extensions for matching/changing IP packet options iptables-mod-ipsec - Iptables (IPv4) extensions for matching special IPsec packets iptables-mod-nat - Iptables (IPv4) extensions for different NAT targets iptables-mod-ulog - Iptables (IPv4) extension for user-space packet logging iptables-utils - iptables-save and iptables-restore for Iptables (IPv4) iptables - The netfilter firewalling software for IPv4 iptraf - shows network traffic ircii - Internet Relay Chat Client iwlib - Library for setting up WiFi cards using the Wireless Extension kmod-audio - audio kernel module kmod-bluetooth-bfusb - Bluetooth HCI BlueFRITZ! USB driver kmod-bluetooth-bluecard - Bluetooth HCI BlueCard (PC Card) driver kmod-bluetooth-bt3c - Bluetooth HCI BT3C (PC Card) drive kmod-bluetooth-btuart - Bluetooth HCI UART (PC Card) driver. kmod-bluetooth-dtl1 - Bluetooth HCI DTL1 (PC Card) driver kmod-bluetooth-hciuart - Bluetooth HCI UART driver kmod-bluetooth-hciusb - Bluetooth HCI USB driver kmod-bluetooth-hcivhci - Bluetooth Virtual HCI device driver kmod-bluetooth - Bluetooth stack kernel modules kmod-firmware-class - firmware_class kernel module kmod-gre - Kernel GRE tunneling support kmod-imq - Kernel support for the Intermediate Queueing device kmod-ip-conntrack-sip - ip_conntrack_sip kernel module kmod-ip-nat-sip - ip_nat_sip kernel module kmod-ip6tables - Kernel modules for ip6tables kmod-ipt-conntrack - Extra Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules for connection tracking kmod-ipt-extra - Other extra Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules kmod-ipt-filter - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules for packet content inspection kmod-ipt-ipopt - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules for matching/changing IP packet options kmod-ipt-ipsec - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules for matching special IPsec packets kmod-ipt-nat-default - Default Netfilter (IPv4) NAT kernel modules for special protocols kmod-ipt-nat-extra - Extra Netfilter (IPv4) NAT kernel modules for special protocols kmod-ipt-nat-h323 - Netfilter (IPv4) NAT kernel modules for H.323 kmod-ipt-nat-pptp - Netfilter (IPv4) NAT kernel modules for GRE and PPTP kmod-ipt-nat-rtsp - Netfilter (IPv4) NAT kernel modules for RTSP kmod-ipt-nat - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel modules for different NAT targets kmod-ipt-queue - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel module for user-space packet queuing kmod-ipt-ulog - Netfilter (IPv4) kernel module for user-space packet logging kmod-iptables-extra - Extra kernel modules for iptables kmod-ipv6 - ipv6 kernel module kmod-madwifi - Driver for Atheros wifi cards, OpenWrt/Kamikaze version kmod-mii - mii kernel module kmod-openswan - Openswan IPSec kernel module kmod-rt61 - Driver for Ralink RT2x61 PCI Wlan cards kmod-rt73 - Driver for Ralink RT73 USB Wlan Sticks kmod-sched - Kernel schedulers for IP traffic kmod-soundcore - soundcore kernel module kmod-tun - tun kernel module kmod-usb-core - Kernel Support for USB kmod-usb-ohci - Kernel driver for OHCI USB controllers kmod-usb-storage - Kernel modules for USB storage support kmod-usb-uhci - Kernel driver for UHCI USB controllers kmod-usb2 - Kernel driver for USB2 controllers kmod-usbnet - usbnet kernel module kmod-vfat - Kernel modules for VFAT filesystem support libao - A cross platform audio library libaudiofile - Audio File library libcurl - A client-side URL transfer utility libdvbpsi4 - libdvbpsi is a simple library designed for decoding and libexif - library for jpeg files with exif tags libexpat - A fast, non-validating, stream-oriented XML parsing library. libflac - Free Lossless Audio Codec library libgcc - GCC support library libgmp - GNU multiprecision arithmetic library libgphoto2 - The basic library of the gphoto2 program. libhowl - Zeroconf networking implementation (library) libiconv - Character set conversion library libid3tag - An ID3 tag manipulation library libjpeg - The Independent JPEG Group's JPEG runtime library libltdl - A generic dynamic object loading library liblzo - LZO is a portable lossless data compression library written in libmad - An high-quality MPEG audio decoding library libncurses - a terminal handling library and common terminal definitions libopenssl - OpenSSL libraries used for SSL encryption. Stripped down for use with OpenVPN libosip2 - libosip2 is a library needed for SIP telephony libpcap - a low-level packet capture library libpcre - a Perl Compatible Regular Expression library libpopt - a command line option parsing library libpthread - POSIX threads library librrd1 - Round Robin Database (RRD) management library. libusb - A library for accessing Linux USB devices libvorbisidec - A fixed-point Ogg/Vorbis decoder library libxml2 - Gnome XML library libxslt - Gnome XSLT library madplay - MPEG audio player in fixed point madwifi-tools - Driver utilities for Atheros 802.11a/b/g MiniPCI cards (openwrt.org/kamikaze) mcast-test - Simple test programs for multicast routing mgetty-nofax - Modem login program. This version with AUTO_PPP. mgetty - Faxmodem suite. This version with AUTO_PPP, mgetty micro-inetd - Simple network service spawner micro-proxy - Really small HTTP/HTTPS proxy; Listens on port 3129 microcom - microcom is a minicom-like serial terminal emulator with scripting support. motion - webcam motion sensing and logging mpc - Music Player Daemon Console Client mpd - Music Player Daemon mrouted - Multicast routing daemon mt-daapd - A multi-threaded DAAP (Digital Audio Access Protocol) daemon mtrace - Multicast pendant of traceroute command mystun - STUN server, build without SSL nbd-server - Server to offer a network swap space nbd - Client to use a network swap space nc6 - Rewrite of netcat for IPv6 (from DeepSpace6) netcat - Hobbits version of NetCat + Debian addons netperfbin - Program and service to do network performance measurement. nmap - Nmap is a free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. ntpclient - ntpclient is an NTP (RFC-1305) client for unix-alike computers. olsrd - Standard OLSR daemon with normal debug and plugins openssl-util - OpenSSL utitility command, required to manage X.509 keys openswan - Openswan IPSec software openvpn-nossl - OpenVPN is a full-featured SSL VPN solution which openvpn - OpenVPN is a full-featured SSL VPN solution which palantir - A multichannel interactive streaming solution peercast - PeerCast is a fresh new P2P streaming server. It can stream music and pimd - Multicast routing daemon for Protocol Idependant pmacct - IP accounting tools (this package without nfacctd) pppd - PPP daemon which implements the Point-to-Point pppoecd - Linksys PPPoE daemon for access to internet using DSL modems pptp - a Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) client pptpd - a Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) server qos-scripts - QoS module for OpenWrt quagga-bgpd - A BGPv4, BGPv4+, BGPv4- routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-isisd - An IS-IS routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-ospf6d - An OSPFv3 routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-ospfd - An OSPFv2 routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-ripd - A RIP routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-ripngd - A RIPNG routing engine for use with Quagga quagga-vtysh - integrated shell for interacting with Quagga quagga - A routing software package that provides TCP/IP rexima - Sound Mixer rrdcgi1 - Round Robin Database (RRD) CGI graphing tool. rrdcollect - Round-Robin Database (RRD) collecting daemon rrdtool1 - RRD is the Acronym for Round Robin Database. RRD is a system to store and display rsync - utility that provides fast incremental file transfer samba-client - NetBIOS/SMB simple client samba-common - NetBIOS/SMB server and client shared files samba-server - NetBIOS/SMB file and print server siproxd - siproxd a SIP proxy daemon for VoIP smstools3 - Receive/Send SMS via UMTS-USB-Stick sox - Sox is a general purpose sound converter/player/recorder srelay - socks 4/5 proxy strace - A system call tracer streamripper - streamripper tc - iproute2 traffic control utility tcpdump - A tool for network monitoring and data acquisition. tftp-hpa - Server Daemon for TFTP/Bootp requests tinc - TINC vpn daemon uclibc++ - A standard c++ library for embedded systems vls - VideoLan Streaming Server with Multicast webif - A modular, extensible web interface for OpenWrt. wificonf - Replacement utility for wlconf wireless-tools - Tools for setting up WiFi cards using the Wireless Extension wl-adv - Advanced version of the proprietary wpa-supplicant - WPA Supplicant with support for WPA and WPA2 xrelayd - stunnel replacement based on xyssl xyssl - Fast, open source implementation of SSL zlib - Compression system used by many programs with overflow fix CAN-2005-2096

 
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